Claude Debussy (né Achille-Claude Debussy), who is often considered one of the most original and influential composers of late 19th and early 20th-century music, spent a lifetime passionately committed to demonstrating that “music remains for all time the finest means of expression we have.” From 1879 – 1917 he composed 38 piano works; 90 songs; chamber music including works for piano, cello, violin, flute, viola, harp, clarinet, bassoon, and trumpet; 4 ballets; 14 orchestral works; 34 dramatic works, and 1 opera.
Although he only composed one full-length opera, Pelléas et Mélisandre, Debussy actually produced an enormous output of vocal works. He composed over 90 songs for voice and piano, most of which were composed during the 1880’s during his late teens and 20’s. These early masterpieces show a deep love of French literature and poetry, especially Mallarmé, Baudelaire, and his childhood friend Paul Verlaine. His keen appreciation of Wagner is also apparent through much of the harmonic language of these songs, although he would later come to reject Wagner’s overtly emotional idiom (and length of compositions!)
Debussy also dabbled in writing poetry and in 1892/93 he composed Proses Lyriques, a song cycle set to the composer’s own poetry. These songs – perhaps more than any others he wrote – best illustrate Debussy’s use of the piano as an equal partner with the voice, rather than as mere background accompaniment. The orchestral piano writing shows off the composer’s near lifelong fascination with producing different colors and timbres from the piano.
During this centenary year of his death, March 25, 1918, Noontime Concerts will present 8 commemorative programs to honor the legacy of this original, prolific, poetic, and iconoclastic composer. We hope to awaken your curiosity and to entice your ears to hear the depth, breadth, mystery, nuance, unique harmony and structure, and sheer beauty of Claude Debussy’s life and music.
Claude Debussy and Maurice Ravel*
Ravel’s stylistic relationship to Debussy is especially interesting. Marked similarities in their music are apparent and Ravel himself willingly expressed his debt to his older countryman. Ravel’s early interest in elaborate yet finely detailed textures clearly owes much to Debussy (although his application of Debussian textural ideas to the keyboard notably in Jeux d’eau, at a time when Debussy’s major piano works had not yet appeared, may, in turn, have influenced the older composer), and Ravel’s harmonic vocabulary, with its richly structured triadic extensions and freely employed nonharmonic tones, was no doubt also in part derived from his predecessor. Further reminiscent of Debussy is a preference for brief melodic ideas, developed mainly by repetition and subtle modification. Yet Ravel’s music projects little of the ambiguity or mystery so characteristic of Debussy. To Debussy’s seemingly unbroken transitional flow, it opposes lucid formal articulations, and Ravel’s harmonic innovations are more firmly tied to traditional root movements, providing a stronger tonal pull. Indeed, in general, Ravel’s music seems more solid, more firmly anchored, than Debussy’s. Its rhythmic patterns are more regular, and its cool lyricism is bound within a much more clearly delineated framework of phrase divisions.
*Debussy & Ravel: form – Indiana University, Bloomington www.indiana.edu/~mkgmusic/t351/unit1/Debusst&Ravel.html
Debussy Festival Performance Schedule
All concerts start at 12:30 PM at Old St. Mary’s Cathedral. Directions
- Labyrinth TrioApril 10 - 12:30 PM
- Neil Rutman, PianoApril 17 - 12:30 PM
- Ann Moss, Soprano; Igor Viera, Baritone Karen Rosenak, PianoMay 1 - 12:30 PM
- Strauss Shi, Violin and Yi-Fang Wu, PianoMay 22 - 12:30 PM
- Alexander and Lucas Perry, Piano 4-HandsMay 29 - 12:30 PM
- Christa Pfeiffer, Soprano; Katherine McKee, Mezzo-soprano; Leandra Ramm, Mezzo-soprano; Brent Smith, PianoJune 19 - 12:30 PM
- Gloriosa TrioJuly 24 - 12:30 PM
- Jeffrey LaDeur, PianoAugust 21 - 12:30 PM
Featured Emerging Artists
Taiwanese-American pianist and violinist, Fantee Jones of Roseville, California gave her first solo recital at the age of seven and made her concerto debut performing Mozart’s Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488 at age ten. She has continued her noteworthy accomplishments winning ma...
Emerging Artist Opportunities
The excitement of discovering a promising new musician is like hearing your favorite piece of music for the very first time. At Noontime Concerts we believe that gifted emerging artists will shape the future of classical music. And that’s why it is our privilege and our commitment to offer young talented musical artists in the early stages of their careers a chance to play on our concert series.
The Helen von Ammon Fund for Emerging Artists provides scholarship-based live performance opportunities for gifted and talented young musicians who are on the threshold of amazing careers. A Noontime Concerts opportunity for these special artists becomes a memorable experience for all of us who are so lucky to see and hear them play.
Claude Debussy Biographical Timeline
Courtesy of Centre de documentation Claude Debussy Copyright © 2007
Birth at Saint-Germain-en-Laye (38, Rue au Pain) of Achille-Claude Debussy, first child of Manuel-Achille Debussy and Victorine Manoury. Debussy’s parents ran a china shop.
Birth of their second child, Adèle-Clémentine.
Christening of Achille-Claude Debussy. Godmother and godfather to the infant were, respectively, his aunt Clémentine Debussy, and her friend, Achille Arosa.
End of year
The unsuccessful china shop is closed up. The Debussy family move to Clichy in northern Paris, where they are taken in by Edmée Manoury, Achille-Claude’s grandmother.
Birth in Paris of the third child, Emmanuel.
Manuel Debussy finds work at the Paul Dupont printing shop. The family sets up in Paris (69, Rue Saint-Honoré).
Victorine Debussy takes her children to Cannes to stay with her sister-in-law Clémentine, Claude’s aunt. Debussy has his first music lessons with the violinist Jean Cerutti.
Birth of the fourth child, Alfred.
Manuel Debussy joins the National Guard and takes part in the Paris Commune. After the Commune is defeated, he is held prisoner at the Satory camp, where he meets the composer Charles de Sivry. Sivry recommends Debussy to his mother, Antoinette Mauté, a piano teacher. For many months, Victorine Debussy, and her four children live in a very small apartment (59 bis, Rue Pigalle). She provides for Debussy’s education at home. Unlike his brothers and sisters, he does not go to school.
Trial of Manuel Debussy by the Conseil de Guerre (War Council), which sentences him to a four-year jail term.
Victorine Debussy petitions the military authorities to reduce her husband’s prison sentence.
After a year under Antoinette Mauté’s teaching, Debussy is admitted to the Conservatoire, joining Antoine Marmontel’s piano and Albert Lavignac’s solfeggio classes.
Beginning of year
After a year in prison, Manuel Debussy is released, his custodial sentence converted into a four-year suspension of civil rights.
The family moves into a two-room apartment at 13, Rue Clapeyron.
Birth of the fifth child, Eugène-Octave.
Debussy’s piano examination inspires the following comment from his teacher Marmontel: “Charming child, true temperament of an artist; will become a distinguished musician; a great future.”
Second honorable mention in piano examination, playing Chopin’s Second Piano Concerto.
Debussy strikes up a friendship with Gabriel Pierné and Paul Vidal.
First honorable mention in piano examination, playing Chopin’s first Ballade.
Debussy’s first appearance at a public concert at Chauny (Aisne), organized by the local industry’s brass band. He accompanies the singer Léontine Mendès in a program of operatic extracts and instrumental pieces
Second concert at Chauny.
Awarded first medal in solfeggio exam; no award for piano.
Claude’s brother Eugène dies from meningitis, aged less than 4 years.
Second prize in piano examination, playing the first movement of Schumann’s Sonata in G minor. This second prize shared with Camille Bellaigue, who later became a music critic.
Debussy enters Émile Durand’s harmony class.
Failure in the piano competition. Debussy receives no prize.
Beginning of year
Makes friends at the Conservatoire with Raymond Bonheur and René Chansarel.
No prizes for Debussy in his piano and solfeggio examinations. Émile Durand makes the following assessment: “Extremely gifted in harmony, but desperately careless.”
Debussy stays at the Château of Chenonceaux with Marguerite Wilson-Pelouze, a woman of substantial means and an ardent admirer of Wagner. He discovers the charms of a life of luxury and decides to become a composer.
Debussy enters Auguste Bazille’s accompaniment classes, along with Maurice Emmanuel. Definitive failure in the piano competition.
End of year
First compositions: Madrid, Princesse des Espagnes and Ballade à la lune, songs on poems by Alfred de Musset.
First prize as an accompanist, but no award in the harmony examination. After three years of study with Émile Durand, Debussy’s name is removed from the class list on 30 September.
20 July – 5 November
Debussy is engaged as accompanist by Nadezhda von Meck and stays at Interlaken (Switzerland), Arcachon (Villa Marguerite), Paris, Nice, Genoa, Naples, Florence (Villa Oppenheim). In September, he composes his first Trio en sol majeur for piano, violin, and cello, for Madame von Meck’s small ensemble which he formed with Pachulsky (violin) and Danilchenko (cello). Transcription for piano duet of three dances from Tchaikovsky’s Lac des cygnes, Act III.
End of year
Debussy becomes piano accompanist for Madame Moreau-Sainti’s singing class, a position he was to keep for four years. Here he meets Marie Vasnier, wife of Henri Vasnier
Debussy enters Ernest Guiraud’s composition class. Attends César Franck’s organ class for a few months, as an auditor.
Beginning of year
Debussy sends his Symphonie en si mineur for piano duet to Madame von Meck. He gives private lessons to his first pupil, Georges Cuignache.
Debussy is a frequent visitor to the Vasnier household in Paris at 28, Rue de Constantinople. He composes a dozen songs for Marie Vasnier, with whom he falls in love, among them Caprice, Aimons-nous et dormons, Les Baisers, Rondel chinois, Jane, La fille aux cheveux de lin, Fleur des blés.
Mid-July – beginning December
In Moscow until the end of September with Madame von Meck, moving to Rome on 2 October and then to Florence. Composes Triolet à Philis and Souhait, songs on poems by Théodore de Banville, and Diane, overture for piano duet.
Debussy completes Fantoches on a poem by Paul Verlaine in the latter’s Fêtes galantes a collection he must have found at the Vasniers.
Public concert at Flaxland’s, the piano maker, in Rue des Mathurins, where Debussy and Marie Vasnier give the first rendering of Fête galante and Les Roses, songs on poems by Théodore de Banville.
Unsuccessful competition entry for the Prix de Rome, with Le Printemps, sung by the Anatole de Ségur choir for female voices and orchestra.
First published work: Nuit d’étoiles on a poem by Banville, published by Société artistique d’édition d’estampes et de musique (E. Bulla). Counterpoint and fugue examinations: second honorable mention.
Composition examination: second honorable mention.
Death of his aunt, Clémentine Debussy.
8 September – end December
Debussy’s third stay with Madame von Meck, at Plechtchevo, some fifty kilometers from Moscow, and from 3 October in Vienna. He composes En Sourdine (1st version) and Mandoline on poems by Verlaine.
Prix de Rome
Debussy makes a collection of thirteen of his songs for Marie Vasnier. He works on Diane au bois, a comic opera on a poem by Théodore de Banville.
Debussy takes over from Paul Vidal as accompanist to the Amateur Choral Society La Concordia, whose honorary president is Charles Gounod.
Admitted for the Prix de Rome competition. He is ranked fourth with Invocation, for male voice choir and orchestra on a text by Alphonse de Lamartine.
19 May -13 June
Admitted for the final competition for the Prix de Rome. Debussy wins second prize with Le Gladiateur, a cantata to words by Émile Moreau.
The first prize goes to Paul Vidal.
September – November
Debussy discovers Paul Bourget‘s collection Les Aveux from which he extracts Romance, Musique, and Paysage sentimental.
A concert was given with La Concordia, to be followed by three further concerts on 1 March, 8 April, and 21 May.
Admitted for the preliminary competition for the Prix de Rome. He is ranked fourth with Le Printemps, for mixed choir and orchestra to words by Jules Barbier.
24 May – 18 June
Admitted for the final competition for the Prix de Rome: Debussy receives first prize with L’Enfant prodigue, a lyrical piece for the stage on a libretto by Édouard Guinand, sung by Rose Caron, Ernest Van Dyck, and Alexandre Taskin.
Debussy goes to Rome to study at the Villa Médicis, in the company of Paul Vidal, Gabriel Pierné, and Georges Marty, under the supervision of Louis Cabat. The first few months in Rome are unhappy. Debussy makes no effort to adapt to his new life.
27 April – beginning May
Short stay in Paris where he returns to the Vasnier family.
Ernest Hébert is appointed director of the Villa Médicis, accompanied by his wife Gabrielle. Debussy now enters the social whirl, playing his songs for the Hébert soirées. He makes friends with Gustave Popelin, a painter also studying at Villa Médicis, and works on Zuleima, a symphonic ode after Henri Heine, his first musical work sent back to Paris from Rome.
Debussy is granted leave of absence from Villa Médicis, at his request, for around two months. He stays in Dieppe with Marie Vasnier, without her husband knowing.
Return to Rome, torn by passion and jealousy. He spends a few days at the property of Count Primoli at Fiumicino.
Marcel Baschet, a painter, also on a scholarship at the Villa Médicis, paints a pastel portrait of Debussy.
Debussy hears two masses by Palestrina and Orlando de Lassus at Santa Maria dell’Anima Church. “The only church music I will accept”
End of year
Works on Diane au bois and on the composition of two new songs on poems by Paul Bourget, Romance et Les Cloches.
Debussy hears Aïda at the Apollo Theatre.
Franz Liszt is a guest at the Villa Médicis. Debussy and Paul Vidal play the Faust-Symphonie for two pianos.
Liszt at Villa Médicis plays his transcription of Schubert’s Ave Maria and Au bord d’une source.
Debussy composes “Green” a song based on a poem from Verlaine’s Ariettes(later Ariettes oubliées).
Arrival as a scholar at Villa Médicis, of Xavier Leroux. For a year, he Vidal and Debussy form an “inseparable trio”.
July – August
Leave of absence in Paris.
Debussy is likely to have stayed in Paris.
He completes Printemps, a symphonic suite, his second work submitted to Paris from Rome, severely judged by the Institut.
Debussy leaves Rome for good, and goes back to his parents in Paris, returning to the company of his brother Alfred, who has an interest in literature and has published a translation in the Revue indépendante of a poem by D. G. Rossetti, Le Bourdon et la besace.
Debussy hears the first act of Wagner’s Tristan et Isolde at the Concerts Lamoureux: “Decidedly the finest thing I know!”
He makes friends with Paul Dukas, Michel Peter, and Ernest Chausson.
Debussy composes La Mort des amants, the last piece in the Cinq Poèmes de Baudelaire.
Debussy becomes a member of the Société Nationale de Musique.
The Debussy family moves to 27, Rue de Berlin.
Debussy composes Le Balcon, the first song in the Cinq Poèmes de Baudelaire and offers the manuscript to his friend, Paul Poujaud.
First edition of Ariettes oubliées published in six separate parts, by the widow of Étienne Girod, in boulevard Montmartre.
First trip to Bayreuth, thanks to Étienne Dupin, financier and music lover. Here Debussy hears Parsifal and Die Meistersinger…
End of year
Debussy completes his third composition from Rome, La Damoiselle élue, on a poem by D. G. Rossetti, for women’s voices, solo, choir and orchestra.
The first performance of two of the six Ariettes oubliées sung at the Société nationale de musique by Maurice Bagès and accompanied by the composer.
The first performance of the Petite Suite for piano duet, played by Debussy and Jacques Durand.
Strikes up a friendship with Robert Godet, whom he met thanks to Jules de Brayer and Maurice Bouchor.
Debussy is a frequent visitor to Paris cafés. At chez Pousset, he meets Villiers de l’Isle Adam and Catulle Mendès, at chez Thommen he enjoys the company of Maurice Rollinat and Gabriel Vicaire, and at café Vachette he converses with Jean Moréas.
Debussy stays with Michel and René Peter in Brittany, at Saint-Égonat close to Saint-Lunaire.
Universal exhibition: Debussy discovers the Javanese gamelan, and the Annamite theatre, staged by a company from Saigon. Also present were Raymond Bonheur, Paul Dukas, and Robert Godet.
22 and 29 June
Debussy hears Rimsky-Korsakov conducting his works at the Trocadéro.
The second trip to Bayreuth to hear Tristan und Isolde, in the company of Ernest Chausson, Paul Dukas, Etienne Dupin and Robert Godet.
Debussy begins the Fantaisie which was to be his fourth composition from Rome, but which he did not submit to the Institut.
Debussy takes Claude-Achille as his first name.
Publication on a subscription basis, organized by Gaston Choisnel, of Cinq Poèmes de Baudelaire. The work is sold at the Librairie de l’Art Indépendant, 11 Rue de la Chaussée d’Antin, owned by Edmond Bailly. Private performance at Ernest Chausson’s attended by Paul Vidal, Catulle Mendès, Henri Gauthiers-Villars.
The first performance of Debussy’s Fantaisie pour piano et orchestre was to be given by René Chansarel in the solo part at the Société Nationale de musique, but Debussy withdraws the piece, because the conductor, Vincent d’Indy, wants to play the first movement only. The score was is sold to Choudens, who does not publish it. Publication, by Fromont, would not take place until 1920
Debussy begins the composition of Rodrigue et Chimène on a libretto by Catulle Mendès.
He meets Gabrielle Dupont, known as Gaby, daughter of a tailor at Lisieux.
Debussy composes several piano works: Rêverie, Tarentelle styrienne, Ballade slave, Valse romantique and begins Deux Arabesques and Suite bergamasque. A Scottish general commissions Marche écossaise.
At the request of his friend Ferdinand Hérold, Debussy goes to Mallarmé’s Tuesdays, regularly attending until 1895. He also goes to the Chat noir cabaret, making friends with Erik Satie, who worked there as a piano accompanist from 1888.
Debussy moves into 76 boulevard Malesherbes for a few months, with his friend Étienne Dupin.
Publication of Mandoline by Durand.
January to May
Debussy returns to 27, Rue de Berlin.
He begins the composition of Fêtes galantes (1st series), three songs on poems by Verlaine. He sells a number of works to the publisher Choudens.
Debussy makes the acquaintance of Camille Claudel, who offers him the sculpture La Valse, which he keeps in his study until his death.
Debussy leaves the family home and sets up at 42, Rue de Londres.
He requests permission from Maurice Maeterlinck to set La Princesse Maleine to music…
Debussy completes Trois Mélodies on poems by Paul Verlaine, which he sells to the publisher Hamelle.
He composes De rêve and De grève, later included in Proses lyriques, and begins work on his string quartet and on Quatuor à cordes and Prélude, Interlude et Paraphrase finale sur l’après-midi d’un faune after Mallarmé.
Jules Bois asks him to write the musical score for the esoteric piece Les Noces de Satan, a commission Debussy turns down at the last moment.
At Mallarmé’s, he meets the poet Pierre Louÿs. They become close friends in October 1893.
Death of his teacher Ernest Guiraud.
Debussy adopts the shorter Claude as his first name. He signs Claude-Achille for the last time on 4 June 1892.
Nocturne pour piano for piano is published by Le Figaro musical.
Two acts of Rodrigue et Chimène are completed.
Erik Satie plays Uspud at L’Auberge du clou.
Debussy receives financial assistance from Prince André Poniatowski (who had invited him to New York but to no avail).
He buys a copy of Pelléas et Mélisande at the Flammarion bookshop. On reading it he is inspired by “perhaps the secret thought of a possible music”.
Debussy listens to the works of Palestrina and Vittoria at the church of Saint-Gervais.
The first performance of La Damoiselle élue at the Société Nationale de musique, Salle Érard, by Julie Robert and Thérèse Roger, conducted by Gabriel Marie.
Debussy is elected member of the Committee of the Société Nationale de musique, at its general meeting.
6, 11 and 18 May
He plays a version of Das Rheingold and Die Walküre for two pianos with Raoul Pugno, at public lectures given by Catulle Mendès on the Tétralogie.at the Paris Opera.
Debussy attends the first performance in France of Die Walküre…
Attends the first and only night of Maeterlincks’s play, Pelléas et Mélisande directed by Lugné-Poe.
30 May-3 June and from 12 June on
Closer friendship with Ernest Chausson. Debussy goes twice to Luzancy, a property rented by Chausson on the banks of the Marne, with Raymond Bonheur and the painter Henri Lerolle. Bonheur wrote later: “For hours, for whole evenings, Debussy, indefatigable at the piano, initiated us to this extraordinary work [Moussorgsky’s Boris Godunov]”
Publication by Bailly of La Damoiselle élue.
Debussy moves in with Gaby at 10, Rue Gustave Doré.
A day spent with Paul Dukas, at Saint-Cloud.
September – October
Debussy composes De soirs, fourth piece in Proses lyriques having written the original poem in July.
First drafts of Pelléas et Mélisande, after receiving permission from Maeterlinck to set his play to music, thanks to Henri de Régnier’s intermediation.
Travels to Belgium, visits Maeterlinck in Ghent, accompanied by Pierre Louÿs, whose company Debussy had kept regularly for the past few weeks.
The first performance of the Quatuor à cordes by the Ysaÿe string quartet at the Société Nationale de musique.
From L’aprés-midi d’un faune to Pelléas
Debussy joins the Société des auteurs (SACEM), on the recommendation of André Messager and publisher Georges Hartmann, who published under the name Eugène Fromont, and who was later to play a providential role in Debussy’s life.
Debussy attends the salon of Marguerite de Saint Marceaux (100, boulevard Malesherbes).
Madame Escudier, Ernest Chausson’s mother-in-law, organizes a series of ten musical events on Wagner, in her apartment, musically illustrated by Debussy at the piano. Debussy plays in only five of the series, giving the first and last act of Parsifal, the second act of Gotterdämerung, and the last act of Tristan.
Debussy completes the first act of Pelléas et Mélisande.
The first performance of two Proses lyriques, De fleurs and De soirs at the Société nationale de musique, by Thérèse Roger and the composer.
Debussy announces his betrothal to the singer Thérèse Roger.
Debussy Festival in Brussels, at La Libre Esthétique. In the programme, Quatuor à cordes, La Damoiselle élue and two Proses lyriques, performed by Thérèse Roger with Debussy at the piano. Later Debussy wrote that she “sang like a little fairy.”
Anonymous letters denounce Debussy’s liaison with Gaby Dupont and his debts. Engagement with Thérèse Roger broken off. Relations with Ernest Chausson also severed.
Debussy works on the third act of Pelléas et Mélisande and begins the composition of the Nocturnes, three pieces for violin and orchestra, intended for Eugène Ysaÿe.
Friendship with Ernest Le Grand, a pupil in Massenet’s class. Every Sunday, Le Grand comes to play piano duets. They frequent Émile Baudoux’s, the music publisher, on Boulevard Haussmann, where they meet Florent Schmitt and Charles Koechlin.
Composition of Images [oubliées] for piano, dedicated to Yvonne Lerolle. The second of the three pieces for piano, Sarabande, was to become the second in the suite Pour le piano.
The first performance of Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune at the Société nationale de musique, Salle d’Harcourt, under conductor Gustave Doret. The work was performed twice.
A close friendship develops with Pierre Louÿs. A number of projects take shape, Cendrelune (libretto worked out in May), Œdipe à Colone and Aphrodite. Meanwhile, Debussy continues to work on Pelléas.
The opera Pelléas et Mélisande is completed. Debussy sends a draft of the orchestral score to Henry Lerolle. Proses lyriques published by Fromont.
Debussy works on the libretto of La grande Bretêche by Balzac but abandons the project.
Publisher Georges Hartmann grants Debussy a monthly income of 500 francs.
13 and 20 October
Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune played at Concerts Colonne, conductor Édouard Colonne.
New project with Pierre Louÿs, Daphnis et Chloé, finally abandoned.
Publication of Sarabande (the future second piece in Pour le piano).
To improve his finances, Debussy returns to the weekly Wagner musical events, held at the salon of Madame Godard-Decrais, in Rue d’Aguessau.
La Saulaie, a new project with Pierre Louÿs.
Debussy intends to complete La Saulaie in December but fails to do so.
He halts the composition of the three Nocturnes for violin and orchestra, intended for Eugène Ysaÿe, and breaks off friendly relations.
Debussy attends the banquet honoring Mallarmé to celebrate the publication of Divagations. Here he makes the acquaintance of the poet José-Maria de Hérédia.
Gaby attempts suicide.
The first performance of Debussy’s previous year’s orchestration of Erik Satie’s Gymnopédies 1 and 3, at Salle Érard, with the Société Nationale de Musique, conductor Gustave Doret.
Begins composing Trois Chansons de Bilitis, including La Flûte de Pan and La Chevelure, on poems by Pierre Louÿs.
Debussy speaks of suicide in a letter to Pierre Louÿs.
Begins to compose the Nocturnes for orchestra.
Composition of two of the Trois Chansons de Charles d’Orléans written for the Lucien Fontaine family choir: Dieu ! qu’il a fait bon regarder and Yver, vous n’estes qu’un vilain.
Mademoiselle Worms de Romilly becomes his pupil.
Debussy and René Peter begin work on a dramatic satire entitled Frères en art or F.E.A., of which three tableaux remain.
First contacts with André Messager and Albert Carré, director of the Opéra-Comique, about Pelléas et Mélisande.
Composition of Nuits blanches, two settings of his own texts, which Debussy was soon to consider as the second part of Proses lyriques.
End of year
Breaks off with Gaby Dupont.
Debussy moves into 58, Rue Cardinet.
Begins a relationship with Marie-Rosalie Texier, known as Lilly.
Pierre Louÿs marries Louise de Hérédia.
Dispatch to Georges Hartmann of the corrected proofs of the Chansons de Bilitis.
Death of Ernest Chausson.
Debussy and Lilly Texier marry, the ceremony being witnessed by Pierre Louÿs, Erik Satie, and Lucien Fontaine.
Debussy completes the Nocturnes.
Publication of the Nocturnes by Fromont.
Debussy works on copying Pelléas et Mélisande for the Opéra-Comique and finalizes the score for voice and piano.
The first performance of Tarentelle styrienne (1890), by Lucien Wurmser at Société nationale de musique.
The first performance of Chansons de Bilitis, by Blanche Marot and Debussy at Société nationale de musique.
Death of publisher Georges Hartmann.
Hayot Quartet plays the Quatuor à cordes at the second official session at the Universal Exhibition.
Lilly Debussy goes to hospital.
La Damoiselle élue is played at the seventh concert at the Universal Exhibition, under conductor Paul Taffanel with Blanche Marot singing the part of the Damoiselle and Laure Beauvais as the Narrator.
Debussy joins the group self-styled the Apaches, whose members include Maurice Ravel, Ricardo Viñes, Lucien Garban, among others.
First performances of the first two Nocturnes at Concerts Lamoureux, conductor Camille Chevillard.
The first performance of the incidental music for Chansons de Bilitis, written by Pierre Louÿs.
Strikes up a friendship with the writer Paul-Jean Toulet.
Debussy entrusts the two piano transcription of the Nocturnes to Maurice Ravel, Lucien Garban, and Raoul Bardac.
Debussy becomes a music critic for the Revue Blanche (giving up in December in the same year). He completes a suite of three pieces entitled Pour le piano and composes Lindaraja for two pianos.
The president of the Orchestral Club of Boston, Elisa Hall, commissions Rapsodie pour saxophone, on which Debussy works, mainly in 1903.
Debussy receives a written undertaking from Albert Carré to put on Pelléas et Mélisande at the Opéra-Comique.
Maeterlinck presses Debussy to give the role of Mélisande to Georgette Leblanc, Maeterlinck’s mistress.
Debussy invents the character of Monsieur Croche.
First stay at Bichain in the Yonne, with Lily Texier’s parents.
First full performance of the Nocturnes at Concerts Lamoureux, conductor Camille Chevillard.
Ricardo Viñes plays the suite Pour le piano at Debussy’s home, the start of a collaboration that was to last a further ten years.
End of year
Debussy begins work on the orchestration of Pelléas et Mélisande.
First performance of Pour le piano (Prélude, Sarabande et Toccata) by Ricardo Viñes at the Société nationale de musique, Salle Érard.
Start of rehearsals of Pelléas et Mélisande at the Opéra-Comique. For three months, Debussy attends virtually every day.
A public conflict between Debussy and Maeterlinck over the choice of Mary Garden for the role of Mélisande.
Maeterlinck publishes a letter in Le Figaro wishing upon Pelléas et Mélisande “an immediate and resounding flop”.
The first performance of Pelléas et Mélisande with Mary Garden, Jean Périer and Hector Dufrane, conductor André Messager. The score for voice and piano is published in early May, the orchestral score in 1904.
First performance in Paris of Wagner’s Gotterdämerung, conducted by Alfred Cortot at the Théâtre du Château d’Eau.
Debussy begins to work on the Devil in the belfry (Le Diable dans le beffroi), a story by Edgar Allan Poe.
The first trip to London, on the invitation of André Messager. He attends a performance of Shakespeare’s Hamlet with Mary Garden.
24 July -15 September
Second stay in Bichain.
Second series of ten performances at the Opéra-Comique of Pelléas et Mélisande, last night 6 January 1903.
Debussy makes the acquaintance of Louis Laloy, who has just published an article on Pelléas et Mélisande in La Revue musicale. He feels the need to return to musical criticism.
Debussy in promoted Chevalier de la Légion d’honneur thanks to Louis Laloy, who approached Jules Combarieu, director of La Revue musicale and first secretary to the Minister of Public Instruction.
Debussy works as a critic for Gil Blas, publishing twenty-five weekly articles until June 1903.
Lettre ouverte à Monsieur le chevalier C. W. Gluck (Open letter to the honorable Chevalier C. W. Gluck), an article by Debussy delivering a new ideal of the national tradition.
Debussy concert was given at the Schola cantorum.
23 April – 3 May
Second trip to London for Gil Blas to render an account of Wagner’s Tetralogy, conducted by Hans Richter at Covent Garden.
May – July
Debussy reworks Rapsodie pour saxophone and Suite bergamasque for piano. He begins composing Isle joyeuse.
Gives up Gil Blas and musical criticism, after publishing a last article entitled Bilan musical en 1903 (La Revue musicale of 1903).
Signs contract with Durand for the publication of Images 1stserie (Reflets dans l’eau , Hommage à Rameau, Mouvement) and 2nd série (Cloches à travers les feuilles, Et la lune descend sur le temple qui fut and Poissons d’or), including three pieces for two pianos or orchestra, which in 1908 were to become Images pour orchestre.
10 July – 1 October
Third stay at Bichain. Debussy begins La Mer, completes Estampes for piano (Pagodes, La Soirée dans Grenade, Jardins sous la pluie) and corrects the orchestral score of Pelléas et Mélisande.
Debussy is estranged from Pierre Louÿs and strikes his name from the dedication of the second piece of Estampes.
Debussy offers Emma Bardac a dedicated copy of Estampes for piano.
Signs a publishing contract with Durand for Diable dans le beffroi, musical narrative in 2 acts and 3 tableaux which he thinks he will finish in May 1905.
Twelve further performances of Pelléas et Mélisande at Opéra-Comique.
Prélude à l’après-midi d’un Faune is on the bill of two Paris symphonic associations, Camille Chevillard conducting at Concerts Lamoureux and Gabriel Pierné at Concerts Colonne.
Debussy accepts a proposal from music publisher Énoch to complete Briséïsby Emmanuel Chabrier (on a libretto by Catulle Mendès). The project was not completed.
Beginning of year
Debussy composes D’un cahier d’esquisses.
Debussy co-opted to the jury of the Concours de la Ville de Paris (Paris musical competition).
The first performance of Estampes by Ricardo Viñes at the Société nationale de musique.
Debussy Concert in the apartments of Princess Cystria. On the programme, the Quatuor played by the Zeitlin Quartet, La Mer and Le son du cor s’afflige, first performance of songs sung by Marthe Legrand, accompanied by Debussy, two Proses lyriques and Mandoline by Maurice Bagès accompanied by Debussy, and les Estampes by Blanche Selva.
Jean Lorrain, a columnist specializing in gossip about the smart and wealthy, publishes an article strongly in favor of the composer, entitled Les Pelléastres, in Le Journal, setting the worldly seal of approval on Debussy’s work.
Further performances of La Damoiselle élue at Opéra-Comique with Mary Garden, conductor André Messager.
Debussy records three of the Ariettes oubliées and the locks of hair scene from Pelléas et Mélisande with Mary Garden for the Compagnie française du Gramophone.
Paris Illustré publishes D’un cahier d’esquisses, subsequently purchased by Schott brothers in Brussels.
Debussy composes Deux danses for harp and orchestra, Danse sacrée andDanse profane, commissioned by the Pleyel piano-making company for the Brussels Conservatoire competition, published almost concurrently with Trois Chansons de France on poems by Charles d’Orléans and Tristan L’Hermite.
Concert of Debussy’s works performed by Émile Engel and Jane Bathori, who were later to become faithful defenders of the composer’s music.
Debussy takes a new and momentous step in his personal life, the dedication of Fêtes galantes (2nt serie) to Emma Bardac as testimony to their love. Debussy takes his pet name for her, Petite Mienne (Little Mine), from the poet Jules Laforgue.
Debussy convinces Lilly to go to Bichain.
Beginning August-mid October
Debussy stays with Emma at the Grand Hôtel de Jersey, incognito. Then the couple goes to Pourville in Normandy. Debussy corrects the proofs of Masques and Fêtes galantes and reworks Isle joyeuse.
Debussy moves into 10, avenue Alphand.
Lilly Debussy attempts suicide by shooting herself in the stomach with a revolver.
The newspapers publicly disclose Lilly’s attempted suicide, and many friends draw away from Debussy.
The first performance of Deux Danses at Concerts Colonne, conductor d’Édouard Colonne, Madame Wurmser–Delcourt at the harp.
The opening of negotiations with a view to Lilly’s divorce, a “sort of a nightmare” lasting until August.
The first performance of Masques and L’Isle joyeuse by Ricardo Viñes, Salle Aeolian. Viñes plays the pieces again a week later at Salle Pleyel at a concert of the Société nationale de musique.
5 March is the date inscribed on the reduced score of La Mer and on the full orchestral score, marking the completion of the work, to be published in July and made available commercially in November, under its brightly colored cover design after Hokusai.
Signing by Debussy and Maeterlinck of the contract of sale of Pelléas et Mélisande to Durand.
New performance of Pelléas et Mélisande at Opéra-Comique, conductor Alexandre Luigini, for a run of six nights.
Emma and Sigismond Bardac divorce, Emma being a few weeks pregnant.
Louis Laloy and Jean Marnold try to get Debussy to write in Le Mercure musical, the journal they have just founded.
Publication of Suite bergamasque for piano, the last original work by Debussy published by Fromont.
Debussy signs an exclusive contract with music publisher Jacques Durand. That same day, Debussy is placed under an injunction by the courts to pay Lilly a monthly income of 400 francs. This is paid by Durand, to whom Debussy has assigned copyright.
End July – 30 August
Stays in Eastbourne with Emma. He buys a Blüthner grand piano. Before returning to Paris they spend a few days in London.
The Civil Court of la Seine pronounces the divorce of Debussy and Lily Texier. In 1905 and 1906, Debussy’s only friends are Louis Laloy and Jacques Durand. A new page is turned in his life.
Correction of the first proofs of La Mer.
Debussy and Emma set up at 64, avenue du Bois de Boulogne, Paris (note that in January 1908, the street number changed to 80, avenue du Bois de Boulogne).
The first performance of La Mer at Concerts Lamoureux, conductor Camille Chevillard.
Further performance of La Mer by the same orchestra and conductor.
Birth of Claude-Emma Debussy, known as Chouchou.
The first performance of the third of the Trois mélodies de Verlaine by Madame Camille Fourrier.
The first performance of Hommage à Rameau by Maurice Dumesnil.
Debussy strikes up a friendship with a young Portuguese musician Francisco de Lacerda and entrusts him with the score of Fêtes de Polymnie by Rameau, which Durand asked Debussy to make ready for publication in the musician’s Complete Works.
Talk by Louis Laloy on “The work of C. Debussy” at the Salle des Agriculteurs. Ricardo Viñes plays Images (1ère serie) in public for the first time.
Composition of Sérénade à la poupée, to become the third piece in Children’s corner.
Lunch at Durand’s with Richard Strauss, who wished to make Debussy’s acquaintance.
Victor Segalen, a young writer, meets Debussy and talks to him about the music he heard in Polynesia, on his return to France from a two-year stay.
Strikes up again with Paul-Jean Toulet, in a closer friendship than before.
June and July
Debussy reverts to work on Ibéria and Diable dans le beffroi.
8 August – 1 September
Stays in the country close to Dieppe, at the Grand Hôtel du Puys.
A new run of Pelléas et Mélisande at the Opéra-Comique, conductor Franz Ruhlmann, for seventeen nights.
At the instigation of Georges Jean-Aubry, Debussy is elected an honorary member of the Cercle de l’art moderne of Le Havre.
Debussy attends rehearsals of Pelléas et Mélisande at the Théâtre de la Monnaie, Brussels.
Orchestration of the song Jet d’eau, the third of Cinq poèmes de Baudelaire.
Relations between Debussy and Ravel are clouded by a number of incidents.
Gabriel Mourey proposes a project for Debussy, based on Bédier’s Roman de Tristan.
Holidays at Pourville, at the Grand Hôtel. Debussy works on Rondes de printemps, the third of Images pour orchestre.
First visit of André Caplet to organize a concert at Le Havre, the beginning of a collaboration which was to take on great importance in Debussy’s life
Victor Segalen dedicates his article Voix mortes: musique Maori to Debussy, published in Mercure musical.
The first performance of the Petite suite in an orchestration by Henri Busser, conductor Camille Chevillard.
Debussy plays Images (2nd serie) for piano to Louis Laloy and Ricardo Viñes (Cloches à travers les feuilles, Et la lune descend sur le temple qui fut and Poissons d’or). Further work to finalize a libretto based on Tristan.
For the first time, Debussy conducts one of his own works, La Mer, at Concerts Colonne, with great success.
Debussy and Emma Bardac marry at the Town Hall of the 16tharrondissement of Paris.
Debussy conducts La Mer again at aux Concerts Colonne.
Debussy conducts Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune and La Mer at the Queen’s Hall in London.>.
The first performance of Images (2nd serie) by Ricardo Viñes.
La Mer in a transcription by André Caplet for two pianos and six hands is given a concert performance by Marcel Chadeigne, Auguste Delacroix, and Roger-Ducasse.
Publication by John Lane in London of Claude-Achille Debussy by Louise Liebich, the first biography of the composer.
Debussy attends one of the last rehearsals and the dress rehearsal of Rameau’s Hippolyte et Aricie.
Debussy in the company of André Caplet attends the second performance of Boris Godunov at the Paris Opéra.
Pelléas et Mélisande returns to the boards of the Opéra-Comique, with Maggie Tate in the role of Mélisande, conducted by Franz Ruhlmann, for a nineteen-night run.
The Debussy family finances do not allow them, as in previous years, to spend a month on the Channel Coast.
Debussy completes the composition of Children’s corner and Chansons de Charles d’Orléans. He works on the libretto of Orphée by Victor Segalen and on a new story by Edgar Allan Poe, The fall of the house of Usher.
Debussy makes the acquaintance of an American violinist of Hungarian origin, Arthur Hartmann, who transcribed the second Ariettes oubliées (Il pleure dans mon cœur) for violin and piano.
Durand publishes Trois Chansons de Charles d’Orléans.
Edgar Varèse visits Debussy.
The first performance of Children’s corner by Harold Bauer.
Completes composition of Ibéria.
Completes composition of Rondes de printemps.
Begins composing Gigues.
On Gabriel Fauré’s suggestion, Debussy becomes a member of the Conseil supérieur of the Conservatoire.
Debussy conducts Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune and Nocturnes at the Queen’s Hall in London.
Debussy has been suffering for some months from “virtually daily bleeding”, the first symptoms of the cancer from which he was to die nine years later.
The first performance of Trois Chansons de Charles d’Orléans by eight singers from the Engel-Bathori choir.
Debussy conducts La Damoiselle élue and Trois Chansons de Charles d’Orléans at Concerts Colonne.
Fifth stay in London for a production of Pelléas et Mélisande at Covent Garden.
He composes The little Nigar and Hommage à Haydn.
Nadar takes photographs of Debussy in formal poses.
Debussy attends a performance of Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes at Théâtre du Châtelet, Ivan the Terrible with Chaliapine and Le Festin, Vaslav Nijinsky and Tamara Karsavina being among the dancers.
Meeting with Durand to finalize a ballet project with Diaghilev. In a few days, Debussy composes the outline to which the title is given Masques et bergamasques
Instead of going to a seaside resort on the English Channel as in previous summers, Debussy stays in Paris with his family and close friends.
He works on The fall of the house of Usher after Edgar Poe and corrects the proofs of Rondes de printemps.
Publication of Debussy’s first French biography, Claude Debussy by Louis Laloy.
Correction of the proofs of Rondes de printemps (third of Images for orchestra) with André Caplet.
The painter Henry de Groux paints two pastel portraits and makes a bust of Debussy.
Debussy composes Rapsodie for clarinet for the Conservatoire competition, and the first book of Préludes for piano, each precisely dated, from 7 December 1909 – 5 January 1910.
From Préludes to Jeux
The first performance of Ibéria at Concerts Colonne, conductor Gabriel Pierné. Publication of Hommage à Haydn.
The first performance of Rondes de printemps in the Concerts Durand, at the Salle Gaveau, conducted by the composer.
Debussy attends the first French performance of Mahler’s Second Symphony, conducted by the composer at Trocadéro. Gustave Mahler had that same February conducted the Nocturnes in New York, and in March, the Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune.
The first concert of the new Société musicale indépendante, where Maurice Ravel gives the first performance of D’un cahier d’esquisses.
Composition of Trois Ballades de François Villon. Abortive plans to tour the United States.
Arthur Hartmann makes a violin and piano transcription of the eighth Prélude, La Fille aux cheveux de lin.
Debussy plays four of his Préludes for piano at the Société musicale indépendante.
The first performance of L’oiseau de feu by Igor Stravinsky at the Ballets Russes. The two composers meet for the first time.
Debussy composes a new piece for the Conservatoire clarinet competition, Petite pièce. He writes La plus que lente, a piece for the violinist Leoni, a waltz originally composed for piano, also published by Durand in a piano-violin transcription.
Debussy stops paying alimony to Lilly Texier.
Marital difficulties beset him with Emma, and family life weighs down on Debussy.
Signs contract for a ballet commissioned by Maud Allan, Isis, which was in December to become Khamma.
Debussy’s father, Manuel-Achille, dies aged 74.
29 November- 7 December
An eight-day trip to Vienna and Budapest, where the composer conducts his own works. Debussy hears Carmen at Vienna. At hotel Kranz he receives a letter from Gabriele D’Annunzio, suggesting collaboration.
Back in Paris, Debussy almost immediately signs a contract to write the music for a four-act drama by Gabriele D’Annunzio, Saint Sébastien, subsequently to be published as Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien, a mystery in five acts and five mansions, with Ida Rubinstein in the title role.
Gustave Mahler conducts Ibéria in New York.
Debussy receives the first fragment of the libretto of Martyre de Saint Sébastien.
Jane Bathori and Ricardo Viñes give the first performance of Promenoir des deux amants.
Dolly Bardac, Emma’s daughter, weds Gaston de Tinan.
Debussy conducts the orchestral version of Trois Ballades de François Villon at the Concerts Séchiari, with the baritone Charles W. Clark.
At the Cercle Musical Charles Domergue, Debussy gives a further performance of Trois Ballades de François Villon, with the baritone Jean Périer. Also on the programme are his orchestration of Erik Satie’s Gymnopédies 1 and 3, and Children’s corner in André Caplet’s orchestration.
Beginning of rehearsals at the Châtelet theatre of Martyre de Saint Sébastien, under conductor André Caplet.
Complete performance of Les Préludes (first book) at Salle Pleyel, by Jane Mortier.
The archbishop of Paris places an interdict on Gabriele D’Annunzio’s theatre piece.
The first night of Martyre de Saint Sébastien at Théâtre du Châtelet, conductor André Caplet.
Igor Stravinsky, Erik Satie and Debussy photograph one another at Debussy’s.
Departure for Turin with Chouchou and Emma, where Debussy conducts his works.
Restful holiday at Houlgate.
Abortive plan to travel to Boston for a performance of Pelléas et Mélisande, conducted by André Caplet.
Piano reduction of Khamma completed.
The first performance of a concert version of Martyre de Saint Sébastien at New York, conductor Kurt Schindler.
The young Italian composer Alfredo Casella visits Debussy.
The writer Charles Morice suggests that Debussy compose a lyric work based on his Poème chanté et dansé d’après Verlaine, under the title Crimen amoris.
Henri Busser completes the orchestration of Printemps, the symphonic suite that was Debussy’s second piece submitted to Paris at the time of his scholarship in Rome.
Polemic begins with the dancer Maud Allan over Khamma. The piano reduction, although published in September, was not put on the shelves until 1916.
Choreographed version of Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune by the Ballets Russes. Debussy was profoundly critical of Nijinsky’s choreography.
Igor Stravinsky and Debussy sight-read the piano reduction of Sacre du printemps at Louis Laloy’s, Debussy taking the bass.
14 and 17 June
Le Martyre de Saint Sébastien given in concert version by Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht at the Société musicale indépendante.
Debussy and Diaghilev sign the contract for the ballet music Jeux, Debussy getting down to work in August.
Debussy faces extreme financial pressure and begs a loan from Durand and Louis Laloy.
He returns to musical criticism with the S.I.M. review. Émile Vuillermoz, the new editor-in-chief, gives a column to Debussy as the music critic of the Concerts Colonne and to Vincent d’Indy for the Concerts Lamoureux.
Hundredth performance of Pelléas et Mélisande at the Opéra-Comique, conducted by Franz Ruhlmann, with Marguerite Carré in the title role.
The first performance of the three Images pour orchestre at Concerts Colonne, conducted by the composer.
Dinner at Café Riche to mark the hundredth performance of Pelléas et Mélisande.
Charles Koechlin commissioned to do the orchestration of Khamma.
Debussy plays the first three Préludes of the second book at Salle Érard.
Inauguration of Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, where Debussy conducts Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune.
Publication of the second book of Préludes for piano.
Performance at Théâtre des Champs-Élysées of the Nocturnes to a choreography by Loie Fuller on a set designed by Fernand Ochsé, conducted by Désiré-Émile Inghelbrecht.
The first performance of Jeux at Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, conducted by Pierre Monteux.
First complete performance of Préludes (second book) in London by Walter Rummel.
Debussy Gala organized by Émile Vuillermoz at the Comédie des Champs-Élysées.
Debussy composes Trois Poèmes de Stéphane Mallarmé. He begins composing La Boîte à joujoux, a ballet for children on a libretto by André Hellé.
Debussy’s financial problems worsen. Emma Debussy falls ill and he contemplates suicide.
The first performance of Syrinx, the publisher’s title for the solo flute piece that Debussy composed for Gabriel Mourey’s Psyché.
Trip to Moscow and Saint-Petersburg for a concert tour.
Debussy works on a new project, Le Palais du silence, which would become No-ja-li but was never completed.
New contract signed for the work planned with Charles Morice after Verlaine, the title Crimen amoris being replaced by Fête galante.
Debussy writes a last article for the S.I.M. review, published on 1 March, and corrects the proofs of Monsieur Croche antidilettante.
Travels to Rome, where he conducts La Mer, Rondes de printemps, Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune and Marche écossaise at the Augusteo.
26 February – 2 March>
Travels to Amsterdam, where he conducts the Nocturnes (I et II), Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune and Marche écossaise at the Concertgebouw.
Debussy Festival at the Philharmonic Society. Debussy accompanies Ninon Vallin for the first performance of Trois Poèmes de Stéphane Mallarmé.
Concert in Holland. Debussy conducts the Nocturnes, Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune, and Marche écossaise.
The first performance of the ballet Spring at Alhambra in London, based on the symphonic suite Printemps orchestrated by Henri Busser, on instructions from Debussy.
Performance at the Châtelet theatre of extracts from Children’s Corner(orchestration by André Caplet) to a choreography by Loie Fuller, Concerts Colonne orchestra conducted by Gabriel Pierné.
Debussy’s last interview, by Dimitri Calvocoressi for a monthly magazine in Philadelphia.
16 – 19 July
Last trip to London for a concert at the Queen’s Hall.
Debussy completes Six Épigraphes antiques, from the earlier incidental music composed for Chansons de Bilitis in 1901.
General mobilization. Debussy is in Paris.
As the Germans advance, Debussy and his family take refuge in Angers, where they spend a month in the Grand Hôtel.
Jacques Durand begins publishing the scores of the major classical composers in new editions, and Debussy agrees to supervise Chopin’s works.
Debussy composes the Berceuse héroïque “in homage to His Majesty King Albert the First of Belgium and his soldiers”.
War and Illness
Debussy’s mother Victorine dies.
Emma Debussy’s mother Madame Moÿse dies.
Debussy agrees to supervise Bach’s works for Durand. He starts composing En blanc et noir.
12 July – 12 October
Stays in the country at Pourville with his family.
Debussy works on En blanc et noir. He announces to his publisher the composition of “Six sonatas for various instruments”, the first of which is despatched at the beginning of August, Sonate pour violoncelle et piano. He works on the Études for piano, composed between 23 July and 29 September.
On his return to Paris, Debussy brings Durand the manuscript for the Sonate en trio (for flute, viola and harp).
First performance of Berceuse héroïque, conducted by Camille Chevillard.
Composition of Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maison, whose popular success would irritate Debussy.
Debussy undergoes surgery in an attempt to cure the cancer of the rectum diagnosed by the doctors, but the condition cannot be eradicated and he suffers from the pain.
First performance in the residence of the Princesse de Polignac of En blanc et noir by Walter Rummel and his wife, Thérèse Chaigneau, concert given in aid of the charity L’Aide affectueuse aux musicians.
Lilly Texier goes to court for payment of the alimony that Debussy has failed to honor for the last six years. He is ordered by the court to pay the 3,600 francs a year he had not paid since 1910. Money and health problems begin to overwhelm him.
11 September – 23 October
Stays at Moulleau, close to Arcachon where Debussy and his family take up residence in the Grand Hôtel. He complains about the number of pianos played by mediocre pianists.
Debussy hands his publisher the definitive version of the libretto of La chute de la maison d’Usher.
First French performance of the Sonate pour flûte, alto et harpe at Durand’s, by Albert Manouvrier (flute), Darius Milhaud (viola) and Jeanne Dalliès (chromatic harp).
First performance by Walter Rummel of four of the Douze Études for the charity Aide affectueuse aux musicians.
Debussy plays En blanc et en noir with Roger-Ducasse for the charity Le Vêtement du prisonnier de guerre.
Debussy completes the revision for Durand of the Six sonates pour violon et piano by J.S.Bach and his own Sonate pour violon et piano.
A concert devoted to Debussy, in aid of the charity Le Vêtement du blessé. He accompanies Claire Croiza in Trois Ballades de François Villon, Fêtes galantes (2nd series) and Noël des enfants qui n’ont plus de maison, and Jacques Salmon in the Sonate pour violoncelle et piano.
First performance by Debussy of the Sonate pour violon et piano with Gaston Poulet, at the Salle Gaveau in aid of the charity Foyer du soldat aveugle.
3 July – 14 October
Stays at Saint-Jean-de-Luz, at Chalet Habas.
11 et 14 September
Debussy gives his last two concerts at Biarritz.
Debussy forced to take to his bed definitively.
Letter of application from Debussy to become a member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts, to take Charles-Marie Widor’s place.
Death of Debussy.
The funeral of Debussy, who is buried in a temporary resting-place at the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris. The following year, his body is transferred to the Cemetery of Passy (Paris 16e)
Death from diphtheria of Debussy’s daughter, Chouchou, not yet 14.
Copyright © 2007 – Centre de documentation Claude Debussy